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計畫名稱: 奈米微粒作業環境控制技術性能評估
計畫編號: IOSH97-H104
出版年月: 2009/03
委辦機關: 勞安所
計畫主持人: 蔡春進、黃政雄
共同計畫主持人:
執行機構: 行政院勞工委員會勞工安全衛生研究所
中文摘要:
本研究收集英國、日本及美國的奈米物質作業環境控制指引,並加以詳細閱讀、重點整理及比較其優劣點,並據以撰寫出本國奈米物質作業控制策略指引草案,供專家學者討論。此草案共分成九節,含奈米物質之範圍,人造奈米物質之種類及特性,風險評估,暴露評估方法,暴露控制方法,意外溢出及釋放、奈米廢棄物處置方法,火災及爆炸預防,健康檢查。

本研究使用微小粉末分散器(SSPD, TSI Inc.)進行粉體分散試驗,並將部分結果與旋轉腔體試驗機法和漩渦震盪法得到的粉體逸散結果進行比較,採用的測試粉體有二氧化鈦、氧化鋅和二氧化矽,此三種材料每種材料皆使用初始粒徑為奈米級和次微米級之粉體來進行實驗。由實驗結果可以發現微小粉末分散器所產生的單位粉體重量之微粒濃度遠高於旋轉腔體試驗機法和漩渦震盪法。比較相同粉體材料的分散狀況,可以發現次微米級粉末的分散狀況比奈米級粉末好。各種粉體材料分散的狀況以二氧化鈦的分散程度最好,氧化鋅次之,二氧化矽最差。

比較國內與國外工業級吸塵器之HEPA filter 對奈米微粒之過濾效率發現國外的HEPA filter 的過濾效率極佳,不論顆粒大小與過濾流量其過濾效率皆在99% 以上。然而,國內生產之HEPA filter 對奈米微粒的過濾效率不盡理想,僅在20%~60%之間,有研究改善之必要。

在作業場所奈米微粒暴露濃度量測方面,本研究在二氧化鈦粉體廠、奈米碳管製造廠及衛浴設備製造廠進行微粒濃度量測,利用採樣器和即時量測儀器來量測可呼吸性微粒及奈米微粒的暴露現況,以及其受作業現況及通風影響情形。結果發現上述三個作業場所的奈米微粒濃度均不高。其中,二氧化鈦粉體廠現場之微粒濃度會受到通風扇的影響,且奈米微粒的來源非粉體本身,而是來自包裝作業之堆高機。

英文摘要:
This study has collected the control guidelines for nanomaterials in the workplace from United Kingdom, Japan and USA. The guidelines were carefully read, analyzed and compared for preparing the domestic “Nanomaterial control strategy in the workplaces (draft)” for the experts and scholars to discuss. The draft contains nine chapters, including the scope of nanomaterials, types and characteristics of engineered nanomaterials, risk assessment, methods of exposure assessment, exposure control, accidental spillage and release, disposal of nanomaterial waste, fire and exposure hazards, health surveillance. The small scale powder disperser (SSPD) was employed in this study for the powder dispersion experiment and results were compared with those of the rotating drum and the vortex shaker. Titanium dioxide, zinc oxide and silica were used as the test materials and the primary particle diameter was found to be either nano-size or submicrom-size for each material. The experimental results shows that the particle concentration generated from the SSPD was higher than the rotating drum and the vortex shaker, and the SSPD had the smaller NMD value than other two instruments.
Therefore, the SSPD have the highest powder dispersion efficiency. Furthermore, it was found that the aggregation of nano-size powder was more serious than submicrom-size powder. Titanium dioxide had the best powder dispersion, zinc was the second one and silica was the worst one.
By Comparing the filtration efficiency of the domestic HEPA filter with the foreign HEPA filter used in the industrial vacuum cleaner shows that the filtration efficiency of the foreign HEPA filter was high enough. Regardless of the particle size and the filtration flow rate, the collection efficiency was as high as 99%. However, the collection efficiency of the domestic HEPA filter was found to be from 20% to 60%. In the field for the particle concentration measurement, this study has proceeded the air sampling in the workplaces such as titanium dioxide mannufactoring factory, carbon nanotubes mannufactoring factory and toliet mannufactoring factory. We used different aerosol samplers and real-time instruments to measure the respirable aerosol and nanoparticle concentrations at different ventilation situations. It is found that the nanaoparticle concentration was not high in the three workplaces. In the titanium dioxide mannufactoring factory, the particle concentration has been affected by the ventlation fan. In addition, the source of nanoparticle was found not coming from the powder, which was coming from the forklift during the bagging operation.
計畫報告連結:
資料庫分類: 勞安所、其他奈米科技應用、環境暴露及控制、職業暴露評估、職業暴露控制、最佳控制實務與風險管理、火災與爆炸、體外實驗、風險認知與溝通、風險評估方法、其他暴露途徑、金屬、多重奈米物質、氧化物、多重系統、其他暴露或危害之標的、報告、工業/研究作業員、技術研究者、一般民眾、公共政策、工程/人造、非故意發生的、工作場所
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網頁更新日期:2016/06/15