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計畫名稱: 電焊作業勞工金屬奈米物質暴露
計畫編號: IOSH97-M320
出版年月: 2009/03
委辦機關: 勞安所
計畫主持人: 熊映美
共同計畫主持人: 劉佩珊
執行機構: 行政院勞工委員會勞工安全衛生研究所
中文摘要:
電銲作業在高溫下產生之電銲燻煙中包含了奈米微粒,因此其危害可從奈米級金屬微粒傷害進行探討。金屬燻煙熱症狀包括頭痛、發燒、發冷、肌肉痛、噁心及嘔吐等症狀。金屬粒子小至100奈米以下,可能造成不同一般金屬微粒的細胞毒害。已知奈米微粒對動物會引起肺部發炎、血栓及肺部纖維化等,也會透過呼吸道進入循環系統及腦部。因此,奈米等級金屬燻煙推測有可能會產生類似之傷害。

電焊工業上產生的金屬性奈米微粒,還可能會因為隨著職場作業方式的不同,而變化其性質,如:溫度、工件材質、電焊電極成份及隔離氣體種類等。這些金屬奈米微粒是否會對勞工健康有細胞毒性,尚未有完整系統進行偵測。金屬奈米粒子進入人體後,對各生理系統在細胞層面之二級訊號的影響,會影響細胞增生調控,分化,程式性死亡等生理功能,與訊息傳遞蛋白質結合,影響其功能;產生活性氧,進入血液循環,引發其他系統的障害,進而導致後續代謝異常。

本研究收集造船電焊作業勞工檢體,分析勞工白血球的細胞毒性、細胞凋亡、細胞質及內質網內鈣離子濃度。另外再將勞工樣本分為抽菸與非抽菸組作比較分析,並搭配人類細胞株,觀察金屬化合物及金屬微粒對細胞的毒性。依據問卷及現場採樣分群,由健康檢查結果、尿中代謝物,勞工血球細胞鈣訊、及凋亡的毒性進程有無健康危害,統計分析暴露造成之群間差異。細胞毒性測試研究結果發現金屬燻煙微粒中具溶解性分液部分之毒性高於不具溶解特質的金屬氧化物。暴露組勞工血球細胞的凋亡比例顯著高於非暴露組,對於不同工廠間具有差異性,而暴露組勞工sub G1比起非暴露組顯著提高,對於細胞內鈣離子的分析,則顯示出暴露組勞工的確有較高的細胞質鈣池基礎值(cytosolic calcium basal level),細胞內鈣離子濃度的上升,可以影響到粒腺體內儲鈣量上升。因此,奈米微粒暴露對勞工體內的細胞有可能造成鈣離子變化,誘發細胞凋亡的反應產生。

分別於造船廠的電焊區、半自動電焊區以及點焊區進行環測。測定結果顯示,在CO2及半自動電焊區中,錳為金屬燻煙中最主要之粒子,其次為鋅,但含量甚少,其它金屬粒子未在燻煙中偵測到。點焊區可測出較多的金屬燻煙,包括錳、鉛、鎳、鋅都有0.5 mg/m3左右,但鉻僅有0.149 mg/ m3。勞工健康調查結果顯示,暴露組勞工肺功能異常經過吸菸校正後,顯示奈米金屬燻煙暴露可能會吸菸對肺的影響程度加大,健檢結果亦顯示燻煙暴露影響心血管及肝功能相關之項目均有顯著群間差異,肝臟傷害可能是錳中毒症的早期出現的徵侯之一。代謝體初步分析以1H-NMR及LC/MS兩種方法篩選出幾個代謝物標記物,多為引起類似細胞修復活動相關的催化反應。以Hela及Jurkat兩種人類細胞株測試奈米金屬毒性,發現NiO、MnO2奈米微粒急毒性雖然較不明顯,但是具亞慢性毒性。此亞慢毒效應在暴露勞工白血球細胞的凋亡百分比及sub G1細胞週期百分比,顯著高於對照組等結果得到驗證。

建議對電焊業之教育宣導加入吸菸會增加奈米金屬燻煙之肺功能障害及心血管疾病誘發效應,對電焊業健康檢查肝功能及心血管項目列為追蹤觀察之職業健康檢查重要指標,NiO、MnO2奈米微粒之亞慢毒性,可提供錳暴露容許濃度評估之參考。

英文摘要:
The metal fume generated by the welding in welding work sites is affected by temperature, welding consumables, welding electrodes and other types of components and isolation gas to change the nature of the fume of metal nano-particles, thereby affecting the health workers. This traditional work has long been known to have an occupational health hazards, exposure problems, and evidences showed that the welding workplace contains a high percentage of nanoscale particles. In the experimental animal studies showed that longterm exposure to nano-particles cause lung inflammation, blood clots and other diseases. The biological health effects of welding fume whether the nano-metal particles or concentration of metals with one of them, was an occupational health hazards in nanoparticle exposure is extremely important subject.
In the past, standard of the nano materials and nano-job-site worker studies have shown those nano-metal particles and the biologically harmful effects of welding fume. With nano-titanium dioxide confirmed that the impacts on cellular genomics are belonging to oxidative damage and cell repair; metal nano-particles exposed workers confirmed that the cytokine TNF-α gene expression and other indication of inflammation related to exposure.
Follow-up studies also found that welding fume exposed workers exhibited higher rates of abnormal on lung function, cardiovascular disease, urine metabolites and health abnormality rate were showed significantly inter-group differences with the control group. Otherwise, the main components of the nano-metal fume standard also confirmed cell apoptosis and toxicity on Jurkat cell in a dose-effect.
This year we collected on-site dust by micro orifice uniform deposition impactor (MOUDI) and monitered by Nanoparticle Aersol Monitor. The major components and effects on cytotoxicity of different sized dust particle in welding fumewere analyzed.
Comparisons of urinary metal content cytotoxicity of white blood cell and health status between the exposure and control groups were fullfilled, and evaluated the impact due to the exposure of fume by statistical analysis. Environmental monitoring of PM10 was found that approximately 70%, PM2.5 accounts for about 50% of the total dust; and about 2.2% of the total dust was smaller than 100 nm. Carbon black was mainly distributed in the range of 100 nm ~ 500 nm, manganese in 500 nm to 2.5 microns and copper in the 1~ 100-nanometer size iv range. The cytotoxic effects were also found around PM2.5 dust and nano-sized ranges.
Health screening of exposure effects were present in high-sensitivity protein C and platelet volume, and in the control group and exposed group were significantly different. The highest metal concentrations in urine of workers is aluminum, and next in order of zinc, iron, copper, manganese, cadmium, nickel, etc.; in control group, a maximum of zinc, followed by aluminum, iron, copper, nickel, manganese, cadmium, etc. . Exposed group compared with non-exposed group of high metal include: aluminum, manganese, iron, nickel, copper, cadmium, etc., after excluding the effects of drugs, is still higher than non-exposed group, and in which the concentration of urine-ferrous metals reached a very significant difference.
計畫報告連結:
資料庫分類: 勞安所、感測、處理、宿命與傳輸、職業暴露評估、體外實驗、風險認知與溝通、流行病學研究、吸入、金屬、報告、工業/研究作業員、技術研究者、一般民眾、工程/人造、非故意發生的、工作場所
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網頁更新日期:2016/06/15