The metal fume generated by the welding in welding work sites is affected by temperature, welding consumables, welding electrodes and other types of components and isolation gas to change the nature of the fume of metal nano-particles, thereby affecting the health workers. This traditional work has long been known to have an occupational health hazards, exposure problems, and evidences showed that the welding workplace contains a high percentage of nanoscale particles. In the experimental animal studies showed that longterm exposure to nano-particles cause lung inflammation, blood clots and other diseases. The biological health effects of welding fume whether the nano-metal particles or concentration of metals with one of them, was an occupational health hazards in nanoparticle exposure is extremely important subject.
In the past, standard of the nano materials and nano-job-site worker studies have shown those nano-metal particles and the biologically harmful effects of welding fume. With nano-titanium dioxide confirmed that the impacts on cellular genomics are belonging to oxidative damage and cell repair; metal nano-particles exposed workers confirmed that the cytokine TNF-α gene expression and other indication of inflammation related to exposure.
Follow-up studies also found that welding fume exposed workers exhibited higher rates of abnormal on lung function, cardiovascular disease, urine metabolites and health abnormality rate were showed significantly inter-group differences with the control group. Otherwise, the main components of the nano-metal fume standard also confirmed cell apoptosis and toxicity on Jurkat cell in a dose-effect.
This year we collected on-site dust by micro orifice uniform deposition impactor (MOUDI) and monitered by Nanoparticle Aersol Monitor. The major components and effects on cytotoxicity of different sized dust particle in welding fumewere analyzed.
Comparisons of urinary metal content cytotoxicity of white blood cell and health status between the exposure and control groups were fullfilled, and evaluated the impact due to the exposure of fume by statistical analysis. Environmental monitoring of PM10 was found that approximately 70%, PM2.5 accounts for about 50% of the total dust; and about 2.2% of the total dust was smaller than 100 nm. Carbon black was mainly distributed in the range of 100 nm ~ 500 nm, manganese in 500 nm to 2.5 microns and copper in the 1~ 100-nanometer size iv range. The cytotoxic effects were also found around PM2.5 dust and nano-sized ranges.
Health screening of exposure effects were present in high-sensitivity protein C and platelet volume, and in the control group and exposed group were significantly different. The highest metal concentrations in urine of workers is aluminum, and next in order of zinc, iron, copper, manganese, cadmium, nickel, etc.; in control group, a maximum of zinc, followed by aluminum, iron, copper, nickel, manganese, cadmium, etc. . Exposed group compared with non-exposed group of high metal include: aluminum, manganese, iron, nickel, copper, cadmium, etc., after excluding the effects of drugs, is still higher than non-exposed group, and in which the concentration of urine-ferrous metals reached a very significant difference.